As part of a broader organisational restructure, data networking research at Swinburne University of Technology has moved from the Centre for Advanced Internet Architecture (CAIA) to the Internet For Things (I4T) Research Lab.

Although CAIA no longer exists, this website reflects CAIA's activities and outputs between March 2002 and February 2017, and is being maintained as a service to the broader data networking research community.

MAPPING -- Measuring And Practically Predicting INternet Growth

Measuring and predicting growth in Internet addressing, routing complexity and energy usage

Related reading

IPv4 Address Consumption, Internet Host Count

  1. kc claffy, Exhausted IPv4 address architectures, March 2011

  2. M. Beckman, Beware the black market rising for IP addresses, InfoWorld, May 3rd 2010.

  3. G. Huston, The Changing Foundation of the Internet: Confronting IPv4 Address Exhaustion, Internet Protocol Journal, September 2008.

  4. J. Heidemann, Y. Pradkin, R. Govindan, C. Papadopoulos, G. Bartlett, J. Bannister, Census and Survey of the Visible Internet (extended), Technical Report ISI-TR-2008-649, USC/Information Sciences Institute, February, 2008.

  5. K. Perset, Internet Address Space: Economic Considerations in the Management of IPv4 and in the Deployment of IPv6, Directorate for Science Technology and Industry, OECD Ministerial Meeting on the Future of the Internet Economy, Seoul, Korea, 17-18 June 2008.

  6. J. Heidemann, Y. Pradkin, R. Govindan, C. Papadopoulos, J. Bannister, Exploring Visible Internet Hosts through Census and Survey, Technical Report ISI-TR-2007-640, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May, 2007.

  7. G. Armitage, Distribution of IP Source Addresses Experienced By Wolfenstein Enemy Territory Game Servers, CAIA Technical Report 070904A, September 2007.

  8. T. Hain, A Pragmatic Report on IPv4 Address Space Consumption, Internet Protocol Journal, Volume 8, Number 3, 2005.

  9. A. Durand, C. Huitema, The Host-Density Ratio for Address Assignment Efficiency: An Update on the H Ratio, RFC3194, Internet Engineering Task Force, November 2001. 

NAT, Device Fingerprinting

  1. S. Zander and S. J. Murdoch, An improved clock-skew measurement technique for revealing hidden services, Proceedings of the 17th Usenix Security symposium, San Jose, CA, USA, pp. 211-225, 2008.

  2. S. Zander, Misclassification of Game Traffic based on Port Numbers: A Case Study using Enemy Territory, CAIA Technical Report 060410D, April 2006.

  3. T. Kohno, A. Broido, and K. C. Claffy, Remote physical device fingerprinting, Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 211-225, 2005.

  4. Steven Bellovin, A Technique for Counting NATted Hosts, Proc. Second Internet Measurement Workshop, November 2002. Presentation slides available at:

  5. G. J. Armitage, Inferring the Extent of Network Address Port Translation at Public/Private Internet Boundaries, CAIA Technical Report 020712A, July 2002.

  6. G. Armitage, Home use and NAT penetration in the QuakeIII Community, May 2001.

Energy Consumption

  1. M. Lane, A. Howard, S. Howard, The Energy Inefficiency of Office Computing and Potential Emerging Technology Solutions.  Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, Volume 6, pp. 795-808, 2009.

  2. P. Bertoldi, B. Atanasiu, Electricity Consumption and Efficiency Trends in the Enlarged European Union, Technical report, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, European Commission Report EUR 22753 EN, 2007.

  3. C. A. Webber, J. A. Roberson, M. C. McWhinney, R. E. Brown, M. J. Pinckard, J. F. Busch, After-hours Power Status of Office Equipment in the USA, Energy, 31, pp. 2823-2838, 2006.

  4. K. Kawamoto, J. G. Koomey, B. Nordman, R. E. Brown, M. A. Piette, M. Ting, A. K. Meier, Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the US, Energy, Volume 27, Issue 3, Page 255, 2001.

  5. US DOE. 1999, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS): Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1997, DOE/EIA-0632(97), November.

Related projects and tools

  1. Hostcount++ project at RIPE-NCC

  2. IPv4 Census Map at The Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis (CAIA), October 2007. 

  3. IPv4 depletion rate

  4. IPv4Countdown!/IPv4Countdown

Last Updated: Monday 30-Mar-2015 17:54:47 AEDT | Maintained by: Sebastian Zander ( | Authorised by: Grenville Armitage (