MAPPING -- Measuring And Practically Predicting INternet Growth
Measuring and predicting growth in Internet
addressing, routing complexity and energy
IPv6-Capable Subnets Internet Map Time Series
This page shows a time series of IPv4 space maps which indicate IPv6-capable subnets.
We plotted observed routed subnets depending on whether a subnet has IPv6-capable hosts. With IPv6-capable we mean hosts that
use native IPv6 or 6rd. Hosts that used Teredo, 6to4, or tunnel brokers are not counted as IPv6 capable. The aim is to show
subnets that are actually IPv6 capable because the maintaining organisation has enabled IPv6.
IPv6-capable hosts were determined by an IPv6 capability test (see our IMC 2012 paper under papers).
Based on the IPv6 addresses of the hosts we filtered out IPv6-capable hosts that used Teredo, 6to4, and well-known tunnelbrokers,
as for these we can assume that their subnets are most likely not IPv6 capable. The test data also gives us the IPv4 addresses
of all tested hosts including the IPv6 capable hosts. With routing data (e.g. Routeviews) and allocation data (RIRs) we map the
IPv4 addresses to routed or allocated subnets.
A subnet is shown in dark orange/brown if no IPv6 capable hosts were detected. A subnet is shown in light blue to
dark blue, if IPv6 capable hosts were detected that used 6rd (and no IPv6 capable hosts without 6rd were detected).
A subnet is shown in light green to dark green if IPv6 capable hosts were detected. The fraction of tested IPv4 addresses
that was IPv6-capable determines the colour of a subnet. If the fraction was very low, the subnet is plotted
in light blue/green, if the fraction was very high the subnet is plotted in dark blue/green.
We pre-processed the data in a number of ways:
- We extrapolate over gaps in the measurement. If there is no measurement result for a subnet in the current time
interval, we keep the previous classification. We also keep subnets once classified as IPv6-capable as IPv6-capable
in the future, even if their fraction of IPv6-capable addresses drops to zero. In such a case we assume that
IPv6 capability has not been switched off, but we simply have not sampled any IPv6-capable address.
- We only classify a subnet as IPv6 native or 6rd, if there are at least two days in a 3-month period where the subnet
was identified as IPv6 native or 6rd.
- Since the fraction of tested IPv6 capable addresses varies due to noise, in each time interval we compute
a weighted average of the current daily fractions and the fractions of the previous interval.
- Since the fraction of IPv6 capable addresses is very unreliable for a very small number of tests we only compute
the fraction if we have tested at least three IPv4 addresses in 24 hours. If fewer than three hosts were tested and
there are any IPv6 capable hosts the fraction is set to 0.05 (without any IPv6 capable hosts the fraction is zero).
The first image shows the state at the end of June 2011. Each further image then advances time by 3 months, i.e. the
second image show the state at the end of September 2011 and so on.
The buttons of the player are self-explanatory. Note, that moving the mouse cursor inside the image pauses playing.
We tested the player with Opera, Firefox, Chrome and IE under Windows and Linux. Note, with Firefox there may be some
flickering between image transitions when playing or stepping through the series for the first time. Note, with all
browsers there may be some longer delays occasionally between pictures when playing.
IPv6-capable routed subnets
If you would like to contribute to the project (e.g. by giving us access to IPv4 address data), or have any suggestions or comments
please contact Sebastian Zander (firstname.lastname@example.org).
The jQuery Image player we use was written by J. Llodra (http://jllodra.github.io/imageplayer/).
This project has been made possible in part by
grants from APNIC for a project
titled "Exploring the Utilisation of IPv4
Address Space and Size of the NATed IPv4
Internet" and an ARC linkage grant with
APNIC as partner organisation for a project titled
"Tools and models for measuring and predicting
growth in internet addressing and routing
complexity" (project LP110100240). The research has also been supported by
Australian Research Council grant FT0991594.