Covert Channels in Computer Network Protocols Bibliography

This is a list of publications discussing covert channels in computer network protocols. It contains only references that deal with covert channels hidden in network or application protocols or protocol mechanisms e.g. trasmitting information through unused protocol header bits. For other types of covert channels please go to my main covert channels page.

It is very likely that this list is incomplete. Also there may be errors. If you find errors or know relevant publications not yet listed on this page please drop me an email!


[1] X. Luo, P. Zhou, E. W. W. Chan, R. K. C. Chang, W. Lee. A Combinatorial Approach to Network Covert Communications with Applications in Web Leaks. In Proceedings of the IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN), 2011.
[2] S. Zander, P. Branch, G. Armitage. Capacity of Temperature-based Covert Channels. IEEE Communications Letters, 15(1):82 - 84, January 2011. [ http ]
[3] S. Zander, G. Armitage, P. Branch. Stealthier Inter-packet Timing Covert Channels,. In IFIP Networking, 9-13 May 2011.
[4] K. Kothari. MIMIC: An Active Covert Channel That Evades Regularity-based Detection. Thesis, degree master of science computer science, The University of Texas at Arlington, May 2010. [ http ]
[5] H. Khan, Y. Javed, S. A. Khayam, F. Mirza. Embedding a Covert Channel in Active Network Connections. In Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (GlobeCom), December 2009. [ .pdf ]
[6] S. Zander, G. Armitage, P. Branch. Reliable Transmission Over Covert Channels in First Person Shooter Multiplayer Games. In Proceedings of 34th Annual IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN), October 2009. [ http ]
[7] Y. Liu, D. Ghosal, F. Armknecht, A.-R. Sadeghi, S. Schulz, S. Katzenbeisser. Hide and Seek in Time - Robust Covert Timing Channels. In Proceedings of 14th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, September 2009. [ .pdf ]
[8] S. H. Sellke, C.-C. Wang, S. Bagchi, N. B. Shroff. Covert TCP/IP Timing Channels: Theory to Implementation. In Proceedings of the 28th Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), April 2009. [ .pdf ]
[9] A. Houmansadr, N. Kiyavash, N. Borisov. RAINBOW: A Robust And Invisible Non-Blind Watermark for Network Flows. In Proceedings of 16th Annual Network & Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS), February 2009. [ .pdf ]
[10] Y. Wang, P. Chen, Y. Ge, B. Mao, L. Xie. Traffic Controller: A Practical Approach to Block Network Covert Timing Channel. In Proceedings of International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, pages 349-354, 2009. [ http ]
[11] A. El-Atawy, E. Al-Shaer. Building Covert Channels over the Packet Reordering Phenomenon. In Proceedings of 28th Annual IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), 2009. [ .pdf ]
[12] W. Mazurczyk, M. Smolarczyk, K. Szczypiorski. Hiding Information in Retransmissions. Cryptography and Security, abs/0905.0363, 2009. [ .pdf ]
[13] X. Luo, E. W. W. Chan, R. K. C. Chang. CLACK: A Network Covert Channel Based on Partial Acknowledgment Encoding. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 2009.
[14] S. Zander, G. Armitage, P. Branch. Covert Channels in Multiplayer First Person Shooter Online Games. In Proceedings of 33rd Annual IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN), October 2008. [ .pdf ]
[15] S. Gianvecchio, H. Wang, D. Wijesekera, S. Jajodia. Model-Based Covert Timing Channels: Automated Modeling and Evasion. In Proceedings of Recent Advances in Intrusion Detection (RAID) Symposium, September 2008. [ .pdf ]
[16] X. Luo, E. W. W. Chan, R. K. C. Chang. TCP Covert Timing Channels: Design and Detection. In Proceedings of IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN), June 2008. [ .pdf ]
[17] S. Zander, G. Armitage, P. Branch. Covert Channels and Countermeasures in Computer Network Protocols. IEEE Communications Magazine, 45(12):136-142, December 2007. [ .pdf ]
[18] S. Wendzel. Protocol Hopping Covert Channels, November 2007. http://gray-world.net/papers/protocolhopping.txt. [ .txt ]
[19] S. Gianvecchio, H. Wang. Detecting Covert Timing Channels: An Entropy-Based Approach. In Proceedings of 14th ACM Conference on Computer and Communication Security (CCS), November 2007. [ .pdf ]
[20] S. Zander, G. Armitage, P. Branch. An Empirical Evaluation of IP Time To Live Covert Channels. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Networks (ICON), November 2007. [ http ]
[21] S. Zander, G. Armitage, P. Branch. A Survey of Covert Channels and Countermeasures in Computer Network Protocols. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, 9(3):44-57, October 2007. [ http ]
[22] S. Zander, P. Branch, G. Armitage. Error Probability Analysis of IP Time To Live Covert Channels. In Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Communications and Information Technologies (ISCIT), October 2007. [ http ]
[23] M. Memelli. g00gle CrewBots or How to firesmith a battleship, September 2007. http://gray-world.net/projects/papers/gbots-1.0.txt. [ .txt ]
[24] X. Luo, E. W. W. Chan, R. K. C. Chang. Cloak: A Ten-fold Way for Reliable Covert Communications. In Proceedings of European Symposium on Research in Computer Security (ESORICS), September 2007. [ .pdf ]
[25] Z. Wang, J. Deng, R. B. Lee. Mutual Anonymous Communications: A New Covert Channel Based on Splitting Tree MAC. In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, May 2007. [ http ]
[26] X. Luo, E. W. W. Chan, R. K. C. Chang. Crafting Web Counters into Covert Channels. In Proceedings of the 22nd IFIP International Information Security Conference (IFIP SEC), 2007.
[27] S. Zander, G. Armitage, P. Branch. Covert Channels in the IP Time To Live Field. In Proceedings of Australian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC), December 2006. [ .pdf ]
[28] M. Van Horenbeeck. Deception on the Network: Thinking Differently About Covert Channels. In Proceedings of 7th Australian Information Warfare and Security Conference, December 2006. [ .pdf ]
[29] S. J. Murdoch. Hot or Not: Revealing Hidden Services by Their Clock Skew. In Proceedings of 13th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS), pages 27-36, November 2006. [ .pdf ]
[30] N. Schear, C. Kintana, Q. Zhang, A. Vahdat. Glavlit: Preventing Exfiltration at Wire Speed. In Proceedings of Fifth Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets), November 2006. [ .pdf ]
[31] Z. Trabelsi, H. El-Sayed, L. Frikha, T. F. Rabie. Traceroute Based IP Channel for Sending Hidden Short Messages. In Proceedings of Advances in Information and Computer Security (IWSEC), pages 421-436, October 2006. [ http ]
[32] W. Mazurczyk, Z. Kotulski. Covert Channel for Improving VoIP Security. In Proceedings of Multiconference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS), pages 311-320, October 2006. [ .pdf ]
[33] W. Mazurczyk, Z. Kotulski. New VoIP Traffic Security Scheme with Digital Watermarking. In Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security (SafeComp), pages 170-181, September 2006. [ .pdf ]
[34] K. Szczypiorski. Steganography in Wireless Local Area Networks. PhD thesis, Warsaw University of Technology, September 2006. [ http ]
[35] C. Krätzer, J. Dittmann, A. Lang, T. Kühne. WLAN Steganography: A First Practical Review. In Proceedings of 8th ACM Multimedia and Security Workshop, September 2006. [ .html ]
[36] L. Butti, F. Veysset. Wi-Fi Advanced Stealth. In Proceedings of Black Hat US, August 2006. http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/bh-usa-06/BH-US-06-Veyssett.pdf. [ .pdf ]
[37] G. Shah, A. Molina, M. Blaze. Keyboards and Covert Channels. In Proceedings of USENIX Security Symposium, August 2006. [ .pdf ]
[38] R. C. Chakinala, A. Kumarasubramanian, R. Manokaran, G. Noubir, C. Pandu Rangan, R. Sundaram. Steganographic Communication in Ordered Channels. In Proceedings of 8th International Workshop on Information Hiding, pages 42-57, July 2006. [ .pdf ]
[39] S. Castro and Gray World Team. Cooking Channels. hakin9 Magazine (www.hakin9.org), pages 50-57, May 2006. [ .pdf ]
[40] J. Dittmann, T. Vogel, R. Hillert. Design and Evaluation of Steganography for Voice-over-IP. In Proceedings of IEEE Circuits and Systems Society (ISCAS), May 2006. [ .pdf ]
[41] R. Sbrusch. Network Covert Channels: Subversive Confidentiality. Technical report, University of Houston Clear Lake, May 2006. [ http ]
[42] D. Llamas. Network Forensics and Covert Channels Analysis in Internet Protocols. April 2006. [ http ]
[43] Z. Kwecka. Application Layer Covert Channels. In Proceedings of BCS Symposium on Intelligence in Security and Forensic Computing, April 2006. [ .pdf ]
[44] A. Giani, V. H. Berk, G. V. Cybenko. Data Exfiltration and Covert Channels. In Proceedings of the SPIE Sensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Technologies for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense V, April 2006. [ .pdf ]
[45] M. Smeets, M. Koot. Research Report: Covert Channels. Master's thesis, University of Amsterdam, February 2006. [ .pdf ]
[46] T. Kühne. Design und Implementierung von Steganographie in WLANs. Master's thesis, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, 2006.
[47] Z. Kwecka. Application Layer Covert Channel Analysis and Detection. Technical report, Napier University Edinburgh, 2006. http://www.buchananweb.co.uk/zk.pdf. [ .pdf ]
[48] R. deGraaf, J. Aycock, M. Jacobson Jr. Improved Port Knocking with Strong Authentication. In Proceedings of 21st Annual Computer Security Applications Conference, December 2005. [ http ]
[49] M. H. Kang, I. S. Moskowitz, S. Chincheck. The Pump: A Decade of Covert Fun. In 21st Annual Computer Security Applications Conference, pages 352-360, December 2005. [ .pdf ]
[50] V. Berk, A. Giani, G. Cybenko. Detection of Covert Channel Encoding in Network Packet Delays. Technical Report TR2005-536, Department of Computer Science, Dartmouth College, November 2005. http://www.ists.dartmouth.edu/library/149.pdf. [ .pdf ]
[51] D. V. Forte, C. Maruti, M. R. Vetturi, M. Zambelli. SecSyslog: An Approach to Secure Logging Based on Covert Channels. In Proceedings of First International Workshop on Systematic Approaches to Digital Forensic Engineering, pages 248-263, November 2005. [ http ]
[52] E. Tumoian, M. Anikeev. Network Based Detection of Passive Covert Channels in TCP/IP. In Proceedings of 1st IEEE LCN Workshop on Network Security, pages 802-809, November 2005. [ http ]
[53] A. Galatenko, A. Grusho, A. Kniazev, E. Timonina. Statistical Covert Channels Through PROXY Server. In Proceedings of Third International Workshop on Mathematical Methods, Models, and Architectures for Computer Network Security, pages 424-429, September 2005. [ http ]
[54] A. Grusho, A. Kniazev, E. Timonina. Detection of Illegal Information Flow. In Proceedings of Third International Workshop on Mathematical Methods, Models, and Architectures for Computer Network Security, pages 235-244, September 2005. [ http ]
[55] X. Zou, Q. Li, S. Sun, X. Niu. The Research on Information Hiding Based on Command Sequence of FTP Protocol. In Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, pages 1079-1085, September 2005. [ http ]
[56] V. Berk, A. Giani, G. Cybenko. Covert Channel Detection Using Process Query Systems. In Proceedings of Workshop on Flow Analysis (FloCon), September 2005. [ .pdf ]
[57] P. Singh. Whispers On The Wire - Network Based Covert Channels Exploitation & Detection. In Symposium on Security for Asia Network (SyScAN), September 2005. [ http ]
[58] J. Bethencourt, J. Franklin, M. Vernon. Mapping Internet Sensors with Probe Response Attacks. In Proceedings of USENIX Security Symposium, August 2005. [ .pdf ]
[59] D. Llamas, A. Miller, C. Allison. An Evaluation Framework for the Analysis of Covert Channels in the TCP/IP Protocol Suite. In 4th European Conference on Information Warfare and Security (ECIW), pages 205-214, July 2005. [ .pdf ]
[60] B. Graham, Y. Zhu, X. Fu, R. Bettati. Using Covert Channels to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Flow Confidentiality Measures. In Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems, pages 57-63, July 2005. [ http ]
[61] Yogi Metha. Communication over the Internet using Covert Channels. Technical report, Computer Science Department, Drexel University, July 2005. https://www.cs.drexel.edu/~vp/CS743/Papers/ypm23-hw2.pdf. [ .pdf ]
[62] S. J. Murdoch, S. Lewis. Embedding Covert Channels into TCP/IP. In Proceedings of 7th Information Hiding Workshop, June 2005. [ .pdf ]
[63] W. Mazurczyk, Z. Kotulski. New Security and Control Protocol for VoIP Based on Steganography and Digital Watermarking. Technical report, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, June 2005. http://arxiv.org/ftp/cs/papers/0602/0602042.pdf. [ .pdf ]
[64] D. Llamas, C. Allison, A. Miller. Covert Channels in Internet Protocols: A Survey. In Proceedings of the 6th Annual Postgraduate Symposium about the Convergence of Telecommunications, Networking and Broadcasting, PGNET 2005, June 2005. [ .pdf ]
[65] H. Qu, Q. Cheng, E. Yaprak. Using Covert Channel to Resist DoS Attacks in WLAN. In Proceedings of International Conference on Wireless Networks, pages 38-44, June 2005. [ http ]
[66] N. B. Lucena, G. Lewandowski, S. J. Chapin. Covert Channels in IPv6. In Proceedings of Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PET), pages 147-166, May 2005. [ http ]
[67] S. Bhadra, S. Shakkottai, S. Vishwanath. Communication Through Jamming Over a Slotted ALOHA Channel. Technical report, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, March 2005. http://www.ece.utexas.edu/~shakkott/Pubs/jamming_aloha.pdf. [ .pdf ]
[68] S. Li, A. Ephremides. A Covert Channel in MAC Protocols based on Splitting Algorithms. In Proceedings of Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), pages 1168-1173, March 2005. [ http ]
[69] M. C. Perkins. Hiding out in Plaintext: Covert Messaging with Bitwise Summations. Master's thesis, Iowa State University, 2005. [ http ]
[70] H.-G. Eßer, F. C. Freiling. Kapazitätsmessung eines verdeckten Zeitkanals über HTTP. Technical Report TR-2005-10, Universität Mannheim, 2005. http://bibserv7.bib.uni-mannheim.de/madoc/volltexte/2005/1136/pdf/tr_2005_10.pdf (in german). [ .pdf ]
[71] G. Danezis. Covert Communications Despite Traffic Data Retention. Technical report, ESAT, University of Leuven, January 2005. http://homes.esat.kuleuven.be/~gdanezis/cover.pdf. [ .pdf ]
[72] E. Cauich, R. Gómez Cárdenas, R. Watanabe. Data Hiding in Identification and Offset IP Fields. In Proceedings of 5th International School and Symposium of Advanced Distributed Systems (ISSADS), pages 118-125, January 2005. [ .pdf ]
[73] E. Tumoian, M. Anikeev. Detecting NUSHU Covert Channels Using Neural Networks. Technical report, Taganrog State University of Radio Engineering, 2005. http://gray-world.net/papers/neural_networks_vs_NUSHU.pdf. [ .pdf ]
[74] Gray-World Team. Covert Channels Through the Looking Glass. Technical report, Gray-World, 2005. http://gray-world.net/projects/papers/cc.txt. [ .txt ]
[75] J. Rutkowska. The Implementation of Passive Covert Channels in the Linux Kernel. In Proceedings of Chaos Communication Congress, December 2004. [ .pdf ]
[76] E. Jones, O. Le Moigne, J.-M. Robert. IP Traceback Solutions Based on Time to Live Covert Channel. In Proceedings of 12th IEEE International Conference on Networks (ICON), pages 451-457, November 2004. [ http ]
[77] S. Bhadra, S. Shakkottai, S. Vishwanath. Covert Communication over Slotted ALOHA Systems. In Proceedings of the 42nd Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing, October 2004. [ .pdf ]
[78] S. Cabuk, C. E. Brodley, C. Shields. IP Covert Timing Channels: Design and Detection. In Proceedings of 11th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS), pages 178-187, October 2004. [ http ]
[79] S. Li, A. Ephremides. A Network Layer Covert Channel in Ad-hoc Wireless Networks. In Proceedings of First IEEE Conference on Sensor and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks (SECON), pages 88-96, October 2004. [ http ]
[80] H. Qu, P. Su, D. Feng. A Typical Noisy Covert Channel in the IP Protocol. In Proceedings of 38th Annual International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology, pages 189-192, October 2004. [ http ]
[81] S. Cabuk, C. Brodley, C. Shields. IP Covert Timing Channels: An Initial Exploration. In Proceedings of ACM Computer and Communications Security Conference, October 2004. [ .pdf ]
[82] K. Borders, A. Prakash. Web Tap: Detecting Covert Web Traffic. In Proceedings of 11th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS), pages 110-120, October 2004. [ http ]
[83] A. Aldini, M. Bernardo. An Integrated View of Security Analysis and Performance Evaluation: Trading QoS with Covert Channel Bandwidth. In Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability and Security (SAFECOMP), pages 283-296, September 2004. [ .ps ]
[84] A. Singh. Eraser: An Exploit - Specific Monitor to Prevent Malicious Communication Channel. Technical report, Georgia Institute of Technology, August 2004. http://www.cercs.gatech.edu/tech-reports/tr2004/git-cercs-04-28.ps. [ .ps ]
[85] L. Helouet, M. Zeitoun, A. Degorre. Scenarios and Covert Channels: Another Game... In Games in Design and Verification Workshop, July 2004. [ .ps ]
[86] D. Llamas, W. Buchanan. Covert Channel Analysis and Detection with Reverse Proxy Servers using Microsoft Windows. In Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on Information Warfare and Security, ECIW 2004, June 2004. [ .pdf ]
[87] L. Helouet. Finding Covert Channels in Protocols with Message Sequence Charts: The Case of RMTP2. In Proceedings of Workshop on System Analysis and Modeling (SAM), pages 189-207, June 2004. [ http ]
[88] N. Lucena, J. Pease, P. Yadollahpour, S. J. Chapin. Syntax and Semantics-Preserving Application-Layer Protocol Steganography. In Proceedings of 6th Information Hiding Workshop, May 2004. [ .pdf ]
[89] D. Llamas. Covert Channel Analysis and Data Hiding in TCP/IP. Master's thesis, Napier University, May 2004. [ .pdf ]
[90] I. Moskowitz, R. Newman, P. Syverson. Quasi-Anonymous Channels. In Proceedings of Communication, Network, and Information Security (CNIS), December 2003. [ .pdf ]
[91] M. Marone. Adaptation and Performance of Covert Channels in Dynamic Source Routing. Technical report, Computer Science Department, Yale University, December 2003. http://zoo.cs.yale.edu/classes/cs490/03-04a/michael.marone/paper.pdf. [ .pdf ]
[92] S. Castro. Covert Channel and Tunneling over the HTTP protocol Detection: GW Implementation Theoretical Design. Technical report, Gray World, November 2003. http://www.infosecwriters.com/hhworld/cctde.html. [ .html ]
[93] T. Sohn, J. Moon, S. Lee, D. H. Lee, J. Lim. Covert Channel Detection in the ICMP Payload Using Support Vector Machine. In Proceedings of 18th International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences (ISCIS), pages 828-835, November 2003. [ http ]
[94] I. S. Moskowitz, R. E. Newman, D. P. Crepeau, Allen R. Miller. Covert Channels and Anonymizing Networks. In Proceedings Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society (WPES), October 30 2003. [ .pdf ]
[95] K. Szczypiorski. HICCUPS: Hidden Communication System for Corrupted Networks. In Proceedings of 10th International Multi-Conference on Advanced Computer Systems, pages 31-40, October 2003. [ .pdf ]
[96] M. Bauer. New Covert Channels in HTTP: Adding Unwitting Web Browsers to Anonymity Sets. In Proceedings of Workshop On Privacy In The Electronic Society, pages 72-78, October 2003. [ http ]
[97] T. Sohn, J. Seo, J. Moon. A Study on the Covert Channel Detection of TCP/IP Header Using Support Vector Machine. In Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Information and Communications Security, pages 313-324, October 2003. [ http ]
[98] T. Sohn, T. Noh, J. Moon. Support Vector Machine Based ICMP Covert Channel Attack Detection. In Second International Workshop on Mathematical Methods, Models, and Architectures for Computer Networks, pages 461-464, September 2003.
[99] A. Singh, O. Nordström, C. Lu, A. L. M. dos Santos. Malicious ICMP Tunneling: Defense against the Vulnerability. In Proceedings of 8th Australasian Conference on Information Security and Privacy (ACISP), pages 226-235, July 2003. [ .ps ]
[100] A. Dyatlov, S. Castro. Exploitation of Data Streams Authorized by a Network Access Control System for Arbitrary Data Transfers: Tunneling and Covert Channels over the HTTP Protocol. Technical report, Gray-World, June 2003. http://gray-world.net/projects/papers/covert_paper.txt. [ .txt ]
[101] echolation. Spamdoors: Using Spam As A Vector Of Back Door Communication, May 2003. http://gray-world.net/papers/spamdoor.txt. [ .txt ]
[102] D. Kundur, K. Ahsan. Practical Internet Steganography: Data Hiding in IP. In Proceedings of Texas Workshop on Security of Information Systems, April 2003. [ .pdf ]
[103] L. Hélouët, C. Jard, M. Zeitoun. Covert Channels Detection in Protocols Using Scenarios. In Proceedings of Workshop on Security Protocols Verification (SPV), April 2003. [ .pdf ]
[104] N. Feamster, M. Balazinska, W. Wang, H. Balakrishnan, D. Karger. Thwarting Web Censorship with Untrusted Messenger Discovery. In Privacy Enhancing Technologies 2003, March 2003. [ .pdf ]
[105] A. Hintz. Covert Channels in TCP and IP Headers, 2003. http://www.defcon.org/images/defcon-10/dc-10-presentations/dc10-hintz-covert.ppt. [ http ]
[106] T. Graf. Messaging over IPv6 Destination Options. Technical report, Swiss Unix User Group, 2003. http://gray-world.net/papers/messip6.txt. [ .txt ]
[107] K. Ahsan, D. Kundur. Practical Data Hiding in TCP/IP. In Proceedings of ACM Workshop on Multimedia Security, December 2002. [ .pdf ]
[108] G. Fisk, M. Fisk, C. Papadopoulos, J. Neil. Eliminating Steganography in Internet Traffic with Active Wardens. In Proceedings of 5th International Workshop on Information Hiding, October 2002. [ .pdf ]
[109] L. Bowyer. Firewall Bypass via Protocol Steganography, September 2002. http://www.networkpenetration.com/protocol_steg.html. [ .html ]
[110] K. Ahsan. Covert Channel Analysis and Data Hiding in TCP/IP. Master's thesis, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, August 2002. [ .pdf ]
[111] N. Feamster, M. Balazinska, G. Harfst, H. Balakrishnan. Infranet: Circumventing Web Censorship and Surveillance. In Proceedings of 11th USENIX Security Symposium, August 2002. [ .pdf ]
[112] D. Pack, W. Streilein, S. E. Webster, R. K. Cunningham. Detecting HTTP Tunneling Activities. In Proceedings of Third Annual Information Assurance Workshop, June 2002. [ .pdf ]
[113] J. Giffin, R. Greenstadt, P. Litwack, R. Tibbetts. Covert Messaging Through TCP Timestamps. In Proceedings of the Privacy Enhancing Technologies Workshop (PET), pages 194-208, April 2002. [ .ps ]
[114] Ka0ticSH. Diggin Em Walls (part 3) - Advanced/Other Techniques for ByPassing Firewalls, April 2002. http://neworder.box.sk/newsread.php?newsid=3957. [ http ]
[115] van Hauser. Placing Backdoors Through Firewalls, 2002. http://www.thc.org/papers/fw-backd.htm. [ http ]
[116] P. Starzetz. Ambiguities in TCP/IP - Firewall Bypassing. Technical report, University of Stuttgart, 2002. http://gray-world.net/papers/ambiguitiesintcpip.txt. [ .txt ]
[117] S. D. Servetto, M. Vetterli. Communication Using Phantoms: Covert Channels in the Internet. In Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), June 2001. [ http ]
[118] C. Abad. IP Checksum Covert Channels and Selected Hash Collision. Technical report, UCLA, 2001. http://http://gray-world.net/papers/ipccc.pdf. [ .pdf ]
[119] P. A. Henry. Covert Channels Provided Hackers the Opportunity and the Means for the Current Distributed Denial of Service Attacks. Technical report, CyberGuard Corporation, 2000. [ .pdf ]
[120] A. Vidstrom. ACK Tunneling Trojans, 2000. http://ntsecurity.nu/papers/acktunneling/. [ http ]
[121] T. M. Dogu, A. Ephremides. Covert Information Transmission through the Use of Standard Collision Resolution Algorithms. In Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Information Hiding (IH), pages 419-433, September 1999.
[122] R. L. Rivest. Chaffing and Winnowing: Confidentiality without Encryption. Technical report, MIT Lab for Computer Science, March 1998. http://theory.lcs.mit.edu/~rivest/chaffing.txt. [ .txt ]
[123] O. Pearson. DNS Tunnel - Through Bastion Hosts, 1998. http://gray-world.net/papers/dnstunnel.txt. [ .txt ]
[124] A. Patel, N. Schmidt, M. Bessonov. Using Datagram Based Multimedia Streams as a Cover Channel for Hidden Transmission. In Third IFIP TC6/TC11 Working Conference on Communications and Multimedia Security, pages 239-249, September 1997. [ .html ]
[125] daemon9. LOKI2: The Implementation. Phrack Magazine, 7(51), September 1997. [ http ]
[126] C. H. Rowland. Covert Channels in the TCP/IP Protocol Suite. First Monday, Peer Reviewed Journal on the Internet, July 1997. [ http ]
[127] N. Ogurtsov, H. Orman, R. Schroeppel, S. O'Malley, O. Spatscheck. Experimental Results of Covert Channel Limitation in One-Way Communication Systems. In Proceedings of Symposium on Network and Distributed System Security (SNDSS), February 1997. [ http ]
[128] M. G. Reed and P. F. Syverson and D. M. Goldschlag. Protocols Using Anonymous Connections: Mobile Applications. In Security Protocols Workshop, pages 13-23, 1997. [ .pdf ]
[129] I. S. Moskowitz, S. J. Greenwald, M. H. Kang. An Analysis of the Timed Z-Channel. In Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pages 2-11, Oakland, CA, May 1996. IEEE Computer Society Press. [ .pdf ]
[130] N. Ogurtsov, H. Orman, R. Schroeppel, S. O'Malley, O. Spatscheck. Covert Channel Elimination Protocols. Technical Report TR96-14, University of Arizona, Department of Computer Science, Technical Reports, 1996. ftp://ftp.cs.arizona.edu/reports/1996/TR96-14.pdf. [ .pdf ]
[131] T. Handel, M. Sandford. Hiding Data in the OSI Network Model. In Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Information Hiding, pages 23-38, 1996. [ http ]
[132] B. R. Venkatraman, R. E. Newman-Wolfe. Capacity Estimation and Auditability of Network Covert Channels. In Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pages 186-198, May 1995. [ http ]
[133] M. H. Kang, I. S. Moskowitz, D. C. Lee. A Network Version of the Pump. In Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pages 144-154, May 1995. [ .pdf ]
[134] M. H. Kang, I. S. Moskowitz. A Data Pump for Communication. Technical Report Memo Report 55-95-7771, Naval Research Laboratory, 1995. http://chacs.nrl.navy.mil/publications/CHACS/1995/1995kang-NRL-7771.pdf. [ .pdf ]
[135] B. R. Venkatraman. Prevention of Traffic Analysis and Associated Covert Channels. PhD thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, 1994.
[136] B. d'Ausbourg . Making Secure Dependencies over a LAN Architecture for Security Needs. In Proceedings of the 17th National Computer Security Conference, pages 114-122, 1994. [ .ps.Z ]
[137] B. R. Venkatraman, R. E. Newman-Wolfe. Transmission Schedules To Prevent Traffic Analysis. In Proceedings of 9th Annual Computer Security and Applications Conference, pages 108-115, December 1993. [ http ]
[138] M. Wolf. Covert Channels in LAN Protocols. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Local Area Network Security (LANSEC), pages 91-101, 1989. [ http ]
[139] K. W. Eggers, P. W. Mallett. Characterizing Network Covert Storage Channels. In Proceedings of Aerospace Computer Security Applications Conference, pages 275-279, December 1988. [ http ]
[140] A. L. Donaldson, J. McHugh, K. A. Nyberg. Covert Channels in Trusted LANs. In Proceedings of the 11th NBS/NCSC National Computer Security Conference, pages 226-232, October 1988.
[141] A. Chmielewski. Utilization of Transmission Code Redundancy for Additional Data Stream. PhD thesis, Warsaw, University of Technology, 1988.
[142] A. B. Jeng, M. D. Abrams. On Network Covert Channel Analysis. In Proceedings of Third Aerospace Computer Security Conference, December 1987. [ .html ]
[143] C. G. Girling. Covert Channels in LAN's. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, SE-13(2):292-296, February 1987. [ http ]
[144] M. A. Padlipsky, D. W. Snow, P. A. Karger. Limitations of End-to-End Encryption in Secure Computer Networks. Technical Report ESD-TR-78-158, Mitre Corporation, August 1978. http://stinet.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=A059221&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf. [ .pdf ]
[145] E. Jones. Legitimate Sites as Covert Channels: An Extension to the Concept of Reverse HTTP Tunnels. http://gray-world.net/papers/lsacc.txt. [ .txt ]

This file was generated by bibtex2html 1.95.


Last Updated: Tuesday 10-May-2011 17:43:33 EST | Maintained by: Sebastian Zander (szander@swin.edu.au) | Authorised by: Grenville Armitage ( garmitage@swin.edu.au)